NIMROD (Heb. נִמְרוֹד, נִמְרֹד), son of cush and grandson of ham son of noah (Gen. 10:8–12; I Chron. 1:10). He is described in the Table of Nations as "a mighty hunter by the grace of the Lord" (Gen. 10:9) whose exploits as a hero of the chase became proverbial. He was also "the first man of might on earth" (Gen. 10:8), i.e., the first to found a great empire after the flood . He is said to have ruled over the famous capitals of southern Mesopotamia, Babylon, Uruk (Erech), and Akkad as well as, apparently, over the great cities of Calah and Nineveh in the land of Assyria. The term "land of Nimrod" appears as a synonymous variant of Assyria in Micah 5:5. The etymology of the name is uncertain as is also the identification of Nimrod with an historical personality. E.A. Speiser connects him with Tukulti-Ninurta 1 (13th century B.C.E.), who was the first Mesopotamian ruler effectively to have combined Babylon and Assyria under a single authority. However, the association of Nimrod with Cush son of Ham presents a difficulty if Cush refers to the area south of Egypt. Another possibility is to connect it with the Kassites who conquered Babylon in the second millennium (cf. Gen. 2:13), in which case a confusion of genealogical traditions is to be presumed. The extraordinary notice about Nimrod in the Table of Nations indicates the existence of a well-known and widespread narrative about him. U. Cassuto has postulated that the five verses in Genesis 10 derive from an ancient epic devoted to his heroic exploits. (Nahum M. Sarna) -In the Aggadah Nimrod is the prototype of rebellion against the Almighty (Ḥag. 13a), his name being interpreted as "he who made all the people rebel against God" (Pes. 94b). As the first hunter, he was the first to eat meat and to make war on other peoples (Mid. Ag. to Gen. 10:8), and he eventually became a king (PdRE 24). His physical prowess came from his coats of skin, which God had made for Adam and Eve (Gen. 3:21) and which Noah had preserved in the Ark. When the animals saw Nimrod wearing these coats, they knelt before him. He became the first man to rule the whole world and he appointed Terah, Abraham's father, his minister (PdRE 24). Elated by his glory, he became an idolator (Sefer ha-Yashar, Noah 9a, 1870). He built the Tower of Babel (which is called by the rabbis, "the house of Nimrod") for idol worship (Av. Zar. 53b) and he had the whole world pay divine homage to him (Mid. Hag to Gen. 11:28). When informed of Abraham's birth, Nimrod ordered all male children to be killed (Ma'aseh Avraham, in: A. Jellinek, Beit ha-Midrash, 2 (19382, 118f.) and he later had Abraham cast into a fiery furnace because he refused to worship fire (Gen. R. 38:13). Nimrod (identified with amraphel ) became a vassal of his rebellious general Chedorlaomer, and was later defeated by Abraham (see Gen. 14; sefer ha-yashar , loc. cit.). He was slain by Esau who was jealous of his success as a hunter and who coveted his magic garments (PdRE 24). In messianic times Nimrod will testify before the whole world that Abraham never worshiped idols (Av. Zar. 3a). -In Islam Namrūd (Namrūdh) b. Kūsh (Cush), or b. Kanʿān (Canaan), is not mentioned by name in the koran . The commentators   are justified, however, in their contention that Suras 21:69; 29:23; and 37:95, in which it is said that the courtiers and the people of abraham suggested that he be thrown into the fiery furnace, refer to Namrūd. In the discussion between the ruler of the land and Abraham (Sura 2:260), another allusion is made to Namrūd. The allusions to the Jewish aggadot about Abraham in the fiery furnace are sufficiently evident. At a later period Nimrod b. Cush (Gen. 10:9), or b. Canaan, is mentioned by name. The theme of Abraham, who worships God and is persecuted by the ruler, recurs in various popular literary works. In a fragment of the qaṣīda (poem) attributed to Samawʾal al-Quarẓī, found in the cairo genizah , the following stanza appears: "It was only in the case of one man (among our ancestors) that the fire which encircled him was changed into fragrant and bowing garden plants." The influence of Muslim legend is most clearly evident in late Jewish legend. These same descriptions are again to be found in the writings of later commentators on the Koran: Zamakhsharī (p. 888; 12th century) and Baydāwī (vol. 1, p. 620; 13th century). (Haïm Z'ew Hirschberg) -BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Falkenstein, in: ZA, 45 (1939), 36; E. Dhorme, Les Religions de Babylonie et d'Assyrie (1945), 102, 128–31; E.A. Speiser, in: Eretz Israel, 5 (1958), 32–36; U. Cassuto, A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (1964), 200 ff.; D.O. Edzard, in: H.W. Haussig (ed.), Woerterbuch der Mythologie, 1 (1965), 114–5; E. Lipinski, in: RB, 73 (1966), 77, 93. IN THE AGGADAH: Ginzberg, Legends, 1 (1909), 175–9, and index. IN ISLAM: Ṭabarī, Taʾrīkh, 1 (1357 A.H.), 142, 201; Thaʿlabī, Qiṣaṣ (1356 A.H.), 80–81; J.W. Hirschberg (ed.), Der Diwan des as-Samauʾal ibn Adijā… (1931), 33, 63–64. ADD BIBLIOGRAPHY: EIS2, 7 (1993), 952–3 (includes bibliography).

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать курсовую

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Nimrod. — Nimrod. Álbum de estudio de Green Day Publicación 14 de octubre de 1997 Grabación mayo y Julio de 1997 Género(s) Punk rock Pop punk …   Wikipedia Español

  • NIMROD — Ναβρώδης Iosepho, qui sic de eo Iud. Ant. l. 1. c. 5. Ἐξῇρε δὲ αὐτοὺς πρός τε ὕβριν τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ καταφρόνησιν ὁ Ναβρώδης, ὠς ὑιωνὸς μὲν ὤν Χάμου τοῦ Νώχου, τολμηρὸς δὲ καὶ κατὰ χεῖρα γενναῖος, ἔπειθεν αὐτοὺς μὴ τῷ Θεῷ διδόναι τὸ δἰ ἐκεῖνον… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Nimrod — Nimrod, MN U.S. city in Minnesota Population (2000): 75 Housing Units (2000): 47 Land area (2000): 0.929036 sq. miles (2.406191 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.053374 sq. miles (0.138238 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.982410 sq. miles (2.544429 sq.… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Nimrod, MN — U.S. city in Minnesota Population (2000): 75 Housing Units (2000): 47 Land area (2000): 0.929036 sq. miles (2.406191 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.053374 sq. miles (0.138238 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.982410 sq. miles (2.544429 sq. km) FIPS code …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Nimrod — Nimrod, 1) Sohn des Chus, um 2000 v. Chr., erster König nach der Sündfluth u. nach der Sage Erbauer des Babylonischen Thurmes (daher der älteste u. größte Trümmerhaufen in der Nähe der späteren babylonischen Ruinen in Mesopotamien noch Birs… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Nimrod — Nimrod, nach 1. Mos. 10, 8–10 Sohn des Kusch und Gründer des babylonischen Reiches, ein gewaltiger Herrscher und Jäger, nach Josephus identisch mit dem Erbauer des Babylonischen Turmes (s. d.), und um dieses Unternehmens willen als Frevler gegen… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Nimrod — (Nimrud), Sohn des Kusch, Enkel Hams, sagenhafter Gründer des Babylon. Reichs, sprichwörtlich als gewaltiger Jäger; nach späterer Sage auch Erbauer des Babylon. Turms (Birs Nimrud) und der Stadt Ninive (s.d.) …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Nimrod — Nimrod, Nemrod, bezeichnet 1. das weitherrschende Land Assyrien, zu dem auch Babylonien gehörte, 2. den Gründer des ersten babylonischen Reiches u. Erbauer vieler Städte, namentlich Ninivehs, den »Helden der Jagd vor dem Herrn« (1 Mos. 10, 9–12) …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Nimrod — • An examination of this Old Testament figure, mentioned in Genesis as a mighty hunter before the Lord and king of Babylon Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006 …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Nimrod — Nimrod,der:⇨Jäger(1) …   Das Wörterbuch der Synonyme

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”